WESTERN CIVILIZATION     Final Exam Study Guide.

 

The final exam will include a timeline section something like this; as you review the items below for the exam, practice matching  the letter on the timeline with the event below.

 

  A     B      C        D       E        AB     AC     AD    AE  _ BC    BD      BE   

       1492            1688            1789               1815            1914            1939

 

Henry VIII and the English Reformation

 

Reformation

Background causes

Leo X and Johann Tetzel

Martin Luther and the 95 Theses

Luther’s heretical doctrines.

Holy Roman Empire and Charles V

Diet of Worms

Peace of Augsburg

John Calvin

Predestination

Geneva

Pope Paul III and the Catholic Counter Reformation

Thirty Years War

Henry VIII and the English Reformation

 

 

The English Revolution

Stuart attitude toward power and Parliament    

James I

Anglican vs. Puritan     

Charles I         

Civil War

Oliver Cromwell          

Cavaliers and Roundheads

Commonwealth

Protectorate

Levelers          

The Restoration and Charles II

James II and the Glorious Revolution     

William and Mary

Triumph of Parliament  and the English Bill of Rights

 

Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Scientific revolution      

Ptolemy and Geocentric model of the universe

Copernicus and Heliocentric model of the universe

Contrast ancient and modern scientific methods

Galileo  and the point of view of the Catholic Church

Sir Issac Newton

Characteristics of the Enlightenment      

John Locke, natural rights and the social contract

Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau               

Montesquieu and the separation of powers

Impact of Enlightenment and JOHN LOCKE on American history and “founding fathers”

      

 

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON

Problems of the Old Regime    

Absolute monarchy      

Three Estates system

The Estates General and the issue of voting

Tennis Court Oath

National Assembly       

Bastille

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen    

August 4th Reforms

Constitution of 1791

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

War with European powers

Jacobins          

Committee of Public Safety

Robespierre     

Reign of Terror

Directory         

Coup d'etat     

Napoleon

Civil Code

Coronation as Emperor            

Austerlitz

Continental System

Invasion of Russia        

Exile to Elba

100 Days and Waterloo

Exile to St Helena

Legacy of Napoleon for France and Europe

 

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Causes of the industrial revolution         

Agricultural Revolution

Technological improvements.

Key raw materials

England as origin and center of Industrial Revolution     

Textiles industry           

Effects on working class.

Adam Smith and Laissez‑faire theory.  

Utilitarianism    

Socialism

Marxism

 

19TH CENTURY

Congress of Vienna

Nationalism

Liberalism

Revolutions of 1848

The French Rollercoaster

French Second Republic (1848), Second Empire (1852), Third Republic (1870).

Universal male suffrage in France.

Reforms in England

Universal Male suffrage in England by end of 19th Century.

Women win the vote in 1928.  

 

 

UNIFICATION OF GERMANY

German nationalism

Frankfurt Assembly

Nature of Prussia

Otto Von Bismarck

Bismarck's Wars: Danish and Austro‑Prussian Wars and

       Franco‑Prussian War and Alsace and Lorraine

German unification in aftermath of Franco Prussian War

Wilhelm I

 

WORLD WAR I

Background causes of World War I:

Nationalism

Imperial rivalry

Militarism   

Alliance system

Balkan tensions

Franz Ferdinand          

Black Hand     

"Blank check" and "ultimatum"

String of events leading to war  

Marne,  Somme, Verdun

Stalemate on Western Front

Industrial Revolution and World War I 

Lusitania and U-boat warfare

Entry of U.S.; exit of Russia

Events of 1918

Armistice         

the Big Four    

"Fourteen Points"

War Guilt Clause         

Treaty of Versailles

Consequences of World War I

League of Nations

 

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

 

Russia before the Revolution

Causes of the Russian Revolution

Tsar Nicolas II

March Revolution and the November Revolution

Bolsheviks

Lenin

Marxism-Leninism

Stalinism

The Gulag

 

WORLD WAR II

 

Rise of Fascism in Italy

Rise of Nazism in Germany

Appeasement

Outbreak of war